What is blood sugar level?

Blood sugar level is the amount of glucose(sugar) in the blood. It is also known as plasma glucose level. It may be controlled by how the glucose is released and stored. This method in turn will be controlled by a hormone called insulin that is produced by the pancreas. In the case of diabetes, the movement of blood sugar level is affected depending on what types of food people consume. Meaning it will often stay away from the further normal range of glucose level. If a healthy person ate food that has the potential of increasing insulin, this could affect the blood glucose level as the insulin could remove/burn the glucose from the blood. This would make the person feel hungry, so in order to block this hunger, they would constantly consume food. An example being foods with a high amount of Glycemic index. This might lead to a person becoming overweight and also predisposing the resistance of insulin. The main organ involved in controlling blood sugar level is the pancreas. The pancreas contains a certain group of cells called the islets of Langerhans, that are actually responsible for secreting insulin. The liver also plays an important role in removing the sugar from the body by transforming it into glycogen, which then is used by our body as energy.

What should blood sugar level be;
-Before meals
A: It should be about 4-7mmol/l

-After 90min prior to the meal
A: Should be less than 10mmol/l

-At bedtime
A: It should be around about 8mmol/l

Signs of high blood glucose
Signs of low blood glucose

Sweating
Continuous thirst
Hunger
Tiredness
Trembling
Excess urination
Anxiety
Deteriorated vision
Blurred vision
Slow healing of infection
Comatose


How can blood sugar be controlled?
Glucose level can be controlled if you eat food that does not contains low fat, sugar, salt and is not high in fiber. The number of calories consumed should be kept constant everyday. The food can vary but meals should not be skipped. Also start an exercise program. Before, the person should check with a health care center to receive suggestion on what type of exercise they should do. Legs and feet should be thoroughly checked in case there are cuts, blisters and swellings it can result in a “diabetes related nerve damage or even ulcers. If you seek for early treatment then this will reduce the risk of amputation.

blood_glucose.jpg
This diagram above explains what causes blood sugar level to increase and decrease.
It basically shows how plasma glucose level works at each stage.


Reference
Benjamin Cummings(2009) Exam 5 review: Chapter 16:General Endocrine Terminology [Internet] Available from: http://www.apsu.edu/thompsonj/Anatomy%20&%20Physiology/2010/2010%20Exam%20Reviews/Exam%205%20Final%20Review/CH%2016%20General%20Endocrine%20Terminology.htm (accessed date:14 April 2009)

Netdoctor(2009) Blood Glucose level [Internet] Available from:
http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/health_advice/facts/diabetesbloodsugar.htm (accessed date:14 April 2009)

Elgalatawy(2009) Food increase insulin and foods decreased blood sugar [Internet] Available from:
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/foods-increase-insulin-decrease-blood-sugar.html (accessed date:15 April 2009)